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《嫉羡与感恩》直播稿(一)

翻译 卢林

On “Envy and Gratitude”

关于《嫉羡与感恩》

Julian  Stern

I am going to present a summary and then some thoughts on Melanie Klein’s paper “Envy and Gratitude”, first published in 1957, and more generally on Kleinian technique. We will look at key concepts and terms such as greed, envy and jealousy, as well as guilt , gratitude and generosity.

我准备先概述一下,然后讲一下梅兰妮.克莱因在1957年出版的《嫉羡与感恩》里的一些思想,然后主要讲一下克莱因的技术。我们来看一下关键的概念和术语,比如贪婪、嫉羡、嫉妒,还有内疚、感恩和慷慨。

But let us begin with a piece written last year. In his book published in 2013, The Examined Life, psychoanalyst Stephen Grosz writes movingly about the problem of Parents envying their children, and how it impoverishes and spoils matters for all parties. The prose is simple, yet it conveys a taster of the more complex ideas to be described in the rest of today’s lecture, and signposts some concepts like destructiveness, spoiling, impoverishment of relationships and grievance

Grosz pp. 93-95

 让我们从精神分析师Stephen Grosz去年的一篇文章开始。 在他2013年出版的书《验过的生活》中,他生动地描述了父母对孩子嫉羡的问题,以及这些嫉羡是如何使所有的聚会变得贫瘠、被糟蹋了。文章很简单,但传递了今天的演讲中要描述的更加复杂的味道,即一些标志杆一样的概念,如毁灭、宠坏、关系的贫瘠和委屈。(Grosz, 93-95页)

Key ideas:

关键点:

The definition of envy used by Klein is “the angry feeling that another person possesses and enjoys something desirable, often accompanied by the impulse to take it away or spoil it”. Contemporary authors also recognise envy as a painful affliction.

克莱因对于嫉羡的定义是“对另一个人占有和享受一个人所渴望的东西的生气的感受,常常伴随着想要夺走或毁坏这个东西的感觉。”。 当代作家们也认为嫉羡是一种痛苦的情感

Klein believes that envious impulses, oral and anal sadistic in nature operate from the beginning of life, initially directed at the maternal breast, and then against parental intercourse. Klein sees envy as a manifestation of primary destructiveness, to some extent “inherited” i.e. constitutionally based, and worsened by external adversity. She feels that the attack on the good object leads to a number of consequences includingConfusion between good and bad And thus difficulties with depressive position acquisition and integration

 克莱因相信嫉羡冲动、天性中的口腔和肛门施虐是来自于生命早期、最初针对于母亲的乳房的,然后是针对于父母的性交的。克莱因把嫉羡看作是原初毁灭性的证明,在某种程度上是“继承的”,是本质上的东西,会因为外在的困难而加重。她感到对于好客体的攻击会导致一系列的后果,包括:

*对于好和坏的混淆

*然后是很难到达抑郁位相以及整合

Envy heightens persecution and guilt.

*嫉羡使迫害和内疚增加了。

In contradistinction to envy, Klein saw gratitude as an expression of love and of the life instinct, thus as the antithesis of envy .

*在嫉羡的禁忌征候里, 克莱因把感恩看作是爱的表达,是生本能,是嫉羡的对立面。History of Envy in PA (Psychoanalysis)

嫉羡在精神分析中的历史

The term “envy” has a long history in Psychoanalysis .

术语“嫉羡”在精神分析里有很长的历史。

In 1908 Freud introduced the concept of “envy of the penis”, as a key psychological problem in the development of women.

1908年freud 介绍了“阴茎嫉羡”这个概念,作为女性发育的心理问题的关键点。

Freud’s assertion was that the little girl becomes aware of lacking a penis upon noticing the genital anatomy of the two sexes. She feels inferior, as Freud put it “lesser in so important a respect” (1925, 253) She thinks that she did possess a penis and has been castrated as a punishment for masturbation and/or imagines that she was deprived of a penis by a neglectful and unloving mother. She envies the penis for its size, masturbatory ease, and its manipulation of the urinary stream. Lacking it, she turns away from the mother to the father to obtain one from him; and the wish to have a baby is born. The wish for possession of a penis is never fully given up, it always persists in the girl and may be impervious to analysis. This penis envy was seen as “the primary organizer” of the female psyche ( Moore and Fine, quoted in Akhtar (2009), p 205) and underlines many character traits eg competitiveness with men, preferring a weak and castrated male for a partner, and neurotic symptoms such as kleptomania and vaginsmus in adult women.   Gradually the concept came under increasing criticism for many reasons (Akhtar describes 10 of which I will enumerate a few) :

Freud 断言:小女孩注意到两性的生理解剖上(的区别),开始意识到她缺乏一个阴茎。她会感到低人一等,就如同freud指出的“在如此重要的方面很小”(1925,253页), 她认为她的确有过一个阴茎,因为自慰而被作为惩罚被阉割掉了,或想象被一个忽略和不爱自己的母亲剥夺了。她嫉羡阴茎的尺寸、易于自慰、可以操纵尿流。缺乏阴茎,她从母亲那里转而朝向父亲,希望从父亲那里获得一个,和父亲生一个宝宝。这种想要获得一个阴茎的愿望从未放弃,总是存在于女孩,可能精神分析也不能渗透到这一点。阴茎嫉羡被看作是女性心理的“原始的组织者”(Moore和Fine,引用于Akhter,2009,205页),这加强许多性格特质,比如与男性竞争,倾向于找一个弱的、阉割了的男性作伴侣,以及成年女性中的露阴癖和阴道痉挛等神经症。渐渐地,这些观念因为很多原因而得到越来越多的批评(Akhtar列数了十个,我在这里列举其中几个):

The entire concept of penis envy and Freud’s use of the expression of the “superior organ” for the penis represented the phallocentrism of a narrative written by and for men

1)阴茎嫉羡的整个概念以及Freud使用“上等的器官”这种方式表达阴茎,代表了阴茎中心主义者是男人,也是被男人描述。

The portrayal of female psychosexual development as disappointed masculinity ( Moore and Fine 1990,p140 , quoted in Akhtar, 206) is not only theoretically biased and pejorative, but empirically untenable in the light of child observational studies

2)作为失望的男性气概的女性心理发育的描述(Moore和Fine,1990,140页,引用于Akhtar,206页),不仅仅在理论上是偏见和贬低,在婴儿观察研究的光芒下也被经验为是战不住脚的。

Even when penis envy is discernible in girls, it is seen as subtle and phase-specific, not pronounced and life long as Freud suggested

3)即使阴茎嫉羡在女孩这里是可以识别的,也是微妙的,并且只是在生殖器期比较特别而已,并不显著,也不是象Freud所说的是终身的。

Rather than emanating from auto-erotic and narcissistic factor, penis envy arose from object relations; it was a manifest content that hid all sorts of affects and longings

     
  1. 与其说其起源于自体性欲或自恋的因素,不如说起源于客体关系;这些明显的内容隐藏了所有的情感和渴望。
  2.  
  3. Penis envy may be but one manifestation of envy at large….and thus can be encountered in men !

5)阴茎嫉羡可能显示在嫉羡阴茎的大小上——而这可能在男性中发生!

Such issues may not be impervious to analysis-they may not form the bedrock of the female psyche

这些问题不可能对分析无动于衷——它们不可能形成女性心理的基石。

And we will see that Klein, although obviously profoundly influenced by Freud, does not take penis envy as the main prototype or example of Envy  

现在我们来看看Klein,她尽管深受Freud的影响,却并不认为阴茎嫉羡是嫉羡的主要原型。

Continuing with the history of Envy in PA writing, Freud, subsequently in 1921, in “Group psychology and the psychology of the ego”  described how members of a group can forego inter-group envy and rivalries in a common idealisation of the group leader .

继续回顾精神分析史中的嫉羡,Freud在1921年,在《团体心理和自我心理》描述团体中的成员理想化团体领袖时是如何放弃相互间的嫉羡和敌对。

Karl Abraham in 1919 wrote about patients who begrudge the efforts and skill of the analyst, to appreciate him, stubbornly refusing to cooperate with him and trying to usurp his place. Abraham described envy as an unmistakable feature in this and saw it as an oral trait.

Karl Abraham在1919年写到嫉妒分析师的成就和技能的病人,他们欣赏分析师,顽强地拒绝和分析师合作,试图篡夺分析师的位置。Abraham描述嫉羡在这里有“不会犯错的”的特征,有口腔期的特质。

In her paper entitled “Jealousy as a mechanism of defence” Joan Riviere in 1932 suggested that in some primitive states of mind, the jealousy apparently linked to “triangular situations “may be nearer to envy. Here the deepest wish was to rob the mother of her possessions. And in 1936 Karen Horney explicitly linked the “negative therapeutic reaction” with envy of the analyst in other words, a wish to spoil the analyst’s work.

在Joan Riviere 1932年名为《作为防御的嫉妒》一文中,他提出:在思维的初级阶段,与“三角关系情形”有关的嫉妒可能最接近嫉羡。最深的愿望就是抢走母亲的所有物(乳房)。1936年Karen Horney明确地把“负性治疗反应”与对分析师的嫉羡连接起来,换句话说,就是破坏分析师工作的愿望。

In the 1940s Hanna Segal and Herbert Rosenfeld began to analyse adult patients with schizophrenia and described how such patients typically would “mount wholesale attacks on the good object for its very goodness” .Their analysis of these extreme cases of envy was seen to help to delineate the phenomenon.

1940年Hanna Segal和Rosenfeld 开始分析精神分裂症的成年病人,他们描述了这些病人如何典型地“准备上演对好客体的大量攻击,就是因为客体的好。”对这些嫉羡的极端案例的分析有助于勾画出这些现象。

But back to Melanie Klein. Her first reference to envy is in 1928 in her paper “Early stages of the Oedipus conflict”. She sees it as emerging at the earliest stage of the Oedipus complex, as a desire in both sexes to spoil the mother’s possessions, particularly the father’s penis, which in fantasy the mother contains. In her work dated 1932, entitled “The Psychoanalysis of Children”, she gives a detailed clinical account of that small child’s envious attacks on the phantasied parental sexual relationship. She considers envy to be one of the motive forces for the fantasy of pushing into the mother’s body in order to discover and scoop out its contents. Interestingly, in this paper she describes such destructive fantasies as being linked to the epistemophilic instinct, implying the interesting paradox that the destructive fantasies have intrinsically positive value. However, in Klein’s view, such fantasies are also the deeper sources of guilt and lead to fears of harbouring hostile objects engaged in deadly intercourse, and/or threatening the self. She thus considers “actual” harmonious parents to be deeply reassuring in this respect. 回到Klein,在她第一份涉及到嫉羡的1928的文章《俄狄浦斯冲突的早期阶段》,她把嫉羡看成是俄狄浦斯情节最早期阶段发生的,无论男孩女孩都有的破坏母亲所有物的愿望,尤其是是想象中母亲还容纳了父亲的阴茎。在她1932年的名为《儿童精神分析》的书中,她详细地描述了临床上小孩对于幻想中父母性关系的嫉羡的攻击。她认为嫉羡是幻想挤进母亲身体去发现和掏空内容物的动机因素之一。有趣的是,在这篇文章中她描述了一些与求知本能有连接的毁灭性幻想,暗指有趣的似是而非,即毁灭性幻想拥有本质上的积极价值。无论如何,在Klein的观点中,这些幻想也是内疚的深层来源,导致对怀着敌意的客体在从事可怕性交的恐惧,和(或)威胁到自体。于是她认为“实际上”和谐的父母是这方面的深层保障。

In Klein’s (1945) paper “the Oedipus complex in the light of the early anxieties” she discusses envy of the mother as an ordinary part of the Oedipus complex in both genders . For the girl, she describes how penis envy and the castration complex are exacerbated by frustration of the more basic oedipal desires. She thinks that children may at one time believe that mother has a penis as a male attribute, but unlike Freud she regards this as far less important than the idea that mother contains father’s penis.

Klein1945年的文章《早期焦虑的俄狄浦斯情节的曙光》中,她讨论了两性俄狄浦斯情节的正常的对母亲的嫉羡。她描述了女孩是如何阴茎嫉羡,描述了更加基础的俄狄浦斯愿望的挫败是如何恶化了阉割情节。她认为孩子们有时候可能相信母亲象男人一样拥有一个阴茎,但是不同于Freud,她觉得这不如母亲包含有父亲的阴茎那么重要。

In the paper (1952) “ The origins of Transference” she spells out what she calls “the prototype of situations of both envy and jealousy”. Powerful envy,  associated with frustrated oral desires, combined with a fantasy that some other person, ( typically, the father ) receives the coveted gratification, leads to a fantasy of the parents combined in everlasting mutual gratification of an oral, anal and genital nature.

在她1952年《移情的起源》一文中,她阐明了她称为“嫉羡和嫉妒两者的原型情形”。强有力的嫉羡,与口欲愿望的挫败一起组成一种幻想,即其他人(举一个典型的例子,比如父亲)获得了令自己觊觎的满足,并导致一种对于父母永久结合着、在口腔、肛门和生殖器本质上相互满足的幻想。

In her subsequent paper “On identification.” (1955), Klein then uses a literary example to illustrate how envy could be a factor driving a person to use extreme projective identification.

在1955年《论认同》一文中,Klein举了一个文学上的例子来阐述嫉羡如何驱使一个人使用极端的投射认同的。

Her seminal paper entitled “Envy and Gratitude” was published in 1957. Here for the first time she  explicitly pairs the two concepts. She refers the first time to envy of the breast earlier discussed by Riviere in 1932.

And finally, in her paper “Our adult world and its roots in Infancy” she provides a brief but comprehensive outline of the paired concepts of envy and gratitude.

她的精华文章冠名《嫉羡与感恩》,于1957年出版发行。这时她第一次把两个概念配对。

I will now try to describe the Key concepts relating Klein’s ideas surrounding Envy and gratitude . Much of this is derived from the Book “The New dictionary of Kleinian thought “ edited by Spillius and her collaborators, published by Routledge in 2011

我现在尝试描述Klein围绕嫉羡与感恩的关键概念。其中许多来自于Spillius与合作者编辑的、2011年Routledge出版的《Klein思想的新词典》一书。

1.innate or primary envy linked to the death instinct.

与死本能连接的内在或原始的嫉羡

2.comparing envy, greed and jealousy.

比较嫉羡、贪婪和嫉妒

3.psychic consequences of envy.

嫉羡的心理后果

4.Envy and its link to gratitude.

嫉羡及其与感恩的链接

5.The interaction of constitution and environment

结构和环境的相互作用

6.Envy in relation to the depressive position.

与抑郁位相相关的嫉羡

7.defences against envy

对嫉羡的防御

8.envy and its contribution to psychosis.

嫉羡及其对精神病的贡献

9.the negative therapeutic reaction

负性治疗反应。

1 Innate or primary envy linked to the death instinct.

与死本能链接的内在或原始的嫉羡

For Klein, the tendency towards envy differs greatly between people , as does the capacity for love, and the accompanying gratitude for goodness received.

在Klein看来,不同的人嫉羡的倾向差别非常大,就像爱的能力一样,伴随着的接受好的感恩也是一样的(差别很大)。

Whilst the environment may modify these tendencies, Klein places substantial emphasis on innate factors and links envy with the death drive.  In 1957 she wrote “ I consider envy is an oral sadistic and anal sadistic expression of destructive impulses, operative from the beginning of life, and that it has a constitutional basis”, and she goes on to write “In speaking of the innate conflict between love and hate, I am implying that the capacity both for love and for destructive impulses is, to some extent, constitutional, though varying individually in strength and interacting from the beginning with external conditions” (p.180) She quotes Chaucer, Milton, Spenser to support her thesis of the universally recognised basic destructiveness of envy and its opposition to love . 

但是环境是可以修改这些倾向的,Klein非常强调天生的因素以及与死本能之间的链接。在1957年,她写到“我认为嫉羡是毁灭性冲动的口腔虐待和肛门虐待的表达,从生命的一开始就开始运作,并且有一个本质的基础。”,她继续写到“在谈到爱恨之间的内在冲突时,我指的是爱和毁灭冲动两者的能力。这种能力在某种程度上是本质上的,尽管会因为外在条件的不同,从一开始,不同个体的这种能力的力量和相互作用就已经很不一样。”(180页)她引用了Chaucer/Milton/Spenser等人的观点来支持自己的、已经被普遍接受的、关于嫉羡的基本毁灭性,以及嫉羡是爱的对立面的观点。文章转载自心理学空间。

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